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Warwick is the County Town of Warwickshire.
It is located in the south of the county on the River Avon, directly bordering Leamington Spa to the east. Villages in the area include Old Milverton, Hatton and Leek Wootton.
The town centre consists predominantly of Georgian and Victorian properties, having been built after the Great Fire of Warwick in 1694. A small number of vernacular buildings remain, particularly towards the edges of the old town. Whilst strategically important in military history, Warwick owes its character largely to the fact that it did not develop significantly as an industrial town.
Warwick Castle lies to the south of the town centre, built on a natural hill on the north bank of the River Avon.
The suburbs consist almost entirely of Victorian and later properties. Woodloes Park and Percy Estates were built in the latter half of the 20th century, each larger than the centre.
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Warwick was once a walled town. The exact location of the wall is unknown, however evidence (positioning of the remaining East and West Gates, excavation work of the former ditch etc) suggests that it ran roughly in line with Market Street, Barrack Street and The Butts. In a circle around this, still run today the extra-mural roads of Mill Street, Gerrard Street, Chapel Street, Joyce Pool, Theatre Street and Bowling Green Street. The ditch's location has been reflected in former road names including Wall Dyke, Wall Dyke Lane and Wallditch Street.
Between the East and West Gates run Jury Street and High Street. When Leland visited Warwick around 1550, the entire road was called High Street. The point where the two meet today marks the centre of the old town, with Church Street running to the north and Castle Street to the south. A cross, known as High Cross, once stood at this point. At the lower end of Castle Street is Castle Lane, that skirts around the northern perimeter of Warwick Castle's grounds. Prior to 1790 (in castle ground expansion) Castle Street was a main road, continuing south all the way to Mill Street. At the top of Church Street is St Mary's church. Running north from this point is Northgate Street, which, as the name suggests, runs north to the town's former North Gate. Beyond the East, North and West gates are Smith Street, Cape Road and West Street.
The northwestern quadrant is occupied mainly by the Shire Hall complex and the town's market area. Today a small market is run each Saturday in the Market Place, however, formally there were many separate markets and fairs in the area, reflected in former road names such as Hog Hill, Cow Lane, Horse Cheaping, Horse Fair, Sheep Street and Womens Market. In the northwesternmost part of the Town (north of the market area) is Shire Hall and Warwick Crown Court. This area formally housed a Bridewell and County Gaol on Barrack Street, before the building of the Warwick Union Workhouse at Packmores in 1838 and Warwick Prison at The Cape in 1860.
Coten End is a road and area in the east of Warwick, running between St Johns and Emscote Road. It is mentioned in the Domesday Book separate to Warwick as a place called Cotes, formally belonging to Edwin, Earl of Mercia. Off the road runs Broad Street, Cherry Street and Guy Street to the north, which were built before 1850, being shown partially developed on the 1851 map. Coten End formally had a petrol station (now a Sainsburys), a tramway stables, a poor house and a cinema, which later became the showroom and factory for Healey cars. Today the Coten End road has a mixture of residential and commercial buildings. Buildings range from timber framed to modern flats.
Emscote is an area to the east of the town centre, lying beyond Coten End and bordering Leamington Spa. An ancient land owner of the area is claimed to have been Edulfus. This led to the area being called Edulfuscote (cote meaning dwelling), later refered to as Edelmescote. It was formally a hamlet, with Edmondscote Manor (now just inside Leamington) as the only building. Today it consists primarily of Emscote Road and the roads that run from it. At the time of the 1851 Ordnance Survey map the area was already well established, with over a hundred buildings marked that no longer exist. Following the building of the canal in 1799 various wharves were built in the Emscote area. Fifty three years later the railway station was opened. Former roads in the area include Goodhall Street, Pickard Place and a section of Avon Street in the Pickard Street area, Chapman Street, Saunders Street and Bridge Row in the Bridge Street area.
Packmores is an area north of the town centre that is bounded by Coventry Road to the east, the canal to the north, Cape Road to the west and the train line to its south. In 1788 the area was called Packmoor Meadows and it was still largely undeveloped at the time of the 1851 map. Warwick Union Workhouse was built on Lakin Road (then Packmore Lane, later Union Road) in 1838 (two year's after Warwick's Poor Law was established) and an infectious disease hospital was constructed some time later. With the large Warwick Prison at the western edge of the area the residential buildings that were constructed were more basic than those in other areas of Warwick; described in 1905 as being artisans' dwellings. Today the area consists mainly of 19th/20th century housing and the since greatly expanded Warwick Hospital site.
The Cape is an area of north Warwick to the west of Packmores. Cape Road runs from the town's former Northgate up to Wedgnock Lane. At the top of the road is the former Warwick Prison, that was built in 1860 and demolished in 1934. Only two buildings exist (The Governors House and former dairy) of the prison, with residential roads Landor Road and Hanworth Road having been built in the former grounds soon after its closure. Opposite the prison a new housing estate has recently been built on the road called Lower Cape. Part of it is still in develoopment.
Saltisford is a road and area in the north of Warwick, lying to the west of The Cape. The area was mainly industrial in the 1800s, with Lambs Hat Manufactury (which employed 500 people). Albert Street, Victoria Street and Edward Street were built between 1901 and 1903 (following King Edward, son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert coming to power in 1901).
Bridge End is a road and area to the south of Warwick, on the southern bank of the River Avon. It was formally connected via a bridge (known as the Great Bridge) at the end of Mill Street (now derilict), prior to construction of the current bridge 1790. The area was refered to as Bridge End in 1815, consisting of "the scanty remains of several considerable streets." Today the area consists predominantly of residential housing.
Myton is an area that lies to the southeast of Warwick with Myton Road running through its centre. Prominant buildings include Warwick School (public) and Myton Hospice.
Percy Estate is a residential housing development in the northeast of the town. It was built in the 1950s and 60s.
Woodloes Park is a residential housing development in the north of the town. Its boundaries are Coventry Road to the east, Woodloes Lane and the A46 trunkroad to the north, the Wedgnock Road Estate to the west and the Grand Union Canal to the south. It was starting to be built in 1973.
The Forbes Estate is a residential housing estate to the southwest of the town centre. It had been developed by the corporation by 1955.
Archeological work at Warwick's Bus Station in the 1960s and 70s unearthed pottery dating back 6,000 years, making it one of the earliest known settlements in the region. Further excavation work in 2008 found artifacts dating back 5,000 years.
Works such as Antiquities of Warwickshire by William Dugdale in 1656, An Historic and Descriptive Account of The Town and Castle of Warwick by William Field in 1815 and A History of Warwick and its People by Thomas Kemp in 1905 draw from and build on a description of Warwick's history by John Rous (1411-1491) called the Rous Roll. Whilst parts of it are rejected by many historians on lack of evidence it was accepted by Camden, Baxter and Stuckeley.
Rous claims that the town was founded by a former King of the Britons called Gutheline (also known as Kimberline) who named it Caer-guthleon or Caer-leon. Kimberline is most likely an alternate spelling of Cymbeline (on whom Shakespeare based his play of the same name) or Kymbelinus, a ruler otherwise known as Cunobelinus who took power around AD 9.
After being destroyed by the Picts and Scots it was rebuilt by Cunobelinus's succesor Caradoc, otherwise Caractacus (reigning 43 - 50 AD), who built a manor house for himself and St John the Baptist church in Market Place. In 50 AD during the reign of Claudius, Publius Ostorius Scapula defeated and captured Caractacus. He erected various fortifications along the Avon and Severn, one of which may have been at Warwick (though no evidence exists of this, leading in part to forementioned skepticism).
Warwick was ruined and rebuilt some time after 426 by Constantine, who called it Caer-Umber. It was destroyed upon his death and remained in ruin until it was rebuilt by a prince named Gwdyr who after himself called it Caer-Gwar. It was during this period that Warwick was made a Bishop's see (center of authority) by Dubretius (possibly Dubricius) and All Saints Church was built on the site of the current castle.
Legend has it that it was during this period that Arthal, Earl of Warwick took a Bear for his sign. The following Earl - Morvidus took a ragged staff as the sign for his shield, after slaying a giant with a young ash tree. It is a combination of these two symbols that led to today's symbol of the bear and ragged staff. There is no record of either of these earls having existed however (not to mention the giant) and the first recorded use of the symbol was in the 13th century.
Warwick was again destroyed at the time of the Saxon Invasions, after which when the country had been divided into provinces the Kingdom of Mercia was allotted to Warremund who rebuilt Warwick and called it Warrewyk. A saxon penny however bears the inscription WERHICA and it is written in the Saxon Chronicle as WERINCA, WÆRINGWIC and the county WÆRINWICKSHIRE.
Having been destroyed by the Danes the town was once again rebuilt in 914. It was this time by Æthelflæd, earl of Mercia, daughter of King Alfred and widow of the former Earl - Æthelred. She is also responsible for laying foundation of the first castle in Warwick, which became the home of future Earls of Warwick.
The last time that Warwick was destroyed by war was in 1016. Again by the Danes, this time under the reign of Cnut the Great. It was quickly rebuilt and by the time of the Domesday Book (completed in 1086) Warwick was described as a Burgh (Burough) containing 261 houses. Coten End has its own entry separate to Warwick, known at the time as Cotes.
The Normal Castle in Warwick was completely destroyed during the reign of Henry III (1216-1272). In 1312 Piers Gaveston was beheaded on Blacklow Hill. The castle was reconstructed around 1330. Towards the end of the century Guy's Tower and Caeser's Tower were added to the castle.
Warwick was made a "mayor town" in 1554 by Queen Mary.
The Black Book of Warwick was started during the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1558 - 1603) by John Fisher - the town's clerk, deputy recorder, baliff (1564-5 and 1580-1) and M.P. for the Borough (sitting in Parliament between March and May 1571). It contains records of events in Warwick over a 27 year period, after which entries continue on a seldom basis up until the start of the 1800s. In 1898 the volume was printed and released to the public by Thomas Kemp, the town's mayor. It includes a summary of information found within, divided into categories including Streets and Buildings, Schools, Inns, Vagrants, Trade and Shops. It was during Queen Elizabeth's reign that St Johns House was built, along with The Priory.
During the 16th century, Warwick's industry served only the needs of itself and that of its surrounding villages. 239 wills drawn between 1660 and 1770 show approximately 60 occupations, none of which being uncommon or of particular importance. Industries included farming (yeoman, husbandmen, labourer), manufacturing (threadman, hempdresser, haircloth weaver, jersey-comber, flaxdresser, hosier, dyer, feltmaker), building (mason, carpenter, joiner, glazier, plumber, sawyer), leather (skinner, tanner, currier, fellmonger), metal working (blacksmith, brazier, cutler) and others including wheelwright, rope maker and miller. Retail trades included baker, grocer, butcher, mercer, ironmonger, stationer, chapman, chandler, shoemaker, cobbler, tailor, barber, innkeeper, maltster, vintner, chirugeon and apothecary.
St Nicholas Parish burial records for the period 1698-1704 show that almost all women were either wives or widows - single women were rare. Occupations recorded but not mentioned in the forementioned wills included stone-digger, brickmaker and less important jobs such as mole-catcher, basket-maker, water-carrier and broom man.
In the period 1660 to 1700, from 182 probate inventories it can be seen that the majority of houses were of reasonable size, with more than one heated room and three quarters with bed-chambers. Approximately a third however did not have a kitchen. There were more parlours than any other room, two thirds of which containing beds. Lofts were generally used for sleeping and 47 houses were built with cellars, being used mainly for making and storing drink.
1694: The Great Fire of Warwick
The Great Fire of Warwick started at around 2pm on Sunday 5th September 1694 and burned for 6 hours. The cause is believed to be a spark from a piece of burning wood that was being carried across a lane near Saunders Row, which set a thatched roof alight. A strong wind helped the fire move into and consume High Street, passing into Jury Street and then up Church Street where it destroyed most of St Mary's Church. The fire spread into The Butts, Northgate Street and as far as Market Place, though Market Hall was spared. 460 buildings are said to have been damaged or demolished and 250 families were made homeless, with the total cost of damage estimated to be £120,000 (a figure disputed by several sources).
1700s & 1800s
The castle grounds were expanded north during the 18th century, demolishing buildings to the south of the town, removing roads and changing the course of what is now Castle Lane. Two paths from the town to places on the river known as High and Low Ladsome were closed off, with a washing cistern provided in the town instead. The Court House was rebuilt in 1724, as was Shire Hall in 1757.
The construction of the Warwick and Birmingham Canal and the Warwick and Napton Canal (now both part of the Grand Union Canal) in the 1790s dramatically reduced the price of coal and allowed for industrial expansion in the town. In 1792 Messrs. Smart established a steam driven cotton spinning factory in the Emscote area, employing up to 50 people. In 1796 William Parkes (after whom Parkes Street was named) established a steam driven worsted spinning manufactory on Saltisford, which employed up to 500 people. In 1797 a cotton weaving factory was built on Oil Mill Lane (now Priory Road) employing 200. Between 1801 and 1831 the population of Warwick rose from 5,592 to 9,209, leading to the construction of new housing, much of which being for unskilled labourers.
The Warwick Advertiser was established in 1806, with the first numbered issued on the 4th of Janurary. By 1815 it had gained extensive circulation, publishing a paper each Saturday from its printing office on High Street. Gas lighting was installed in the town in 1822, being switched on first time on March 28th.
In 1835 the town was governed by a mayor, recorder, deputy recorder, twelve aldermen and twelve burgesses. They were additionally aided by a town clerk, serjeant at mace, yeoman serjeant and subordinate officers. Run by the "justices of the peace" (the mayor, former mayor, recorder, deputy recorder and three senior aldermen); courts for non-capital offenses were held quarterly and courts for debts not exceeding £40 held every Wednesday (except during Christmas, Easter and Whitsun weeks). County hall was used for the county's assizes and general quarter sessions. Courts Leet and Courts Baron were occasionally held by the Earl of Warwick.
By 1835 cotton manufacturing had ceased in the town and only one worsted manufactury remained (that belonging to Mr Burton). Several large malting-houses and corn mills were in operation along with two roperies and a silk-throwing concern. Lime, timber and coal wharves had been established on the town's two canals.
Train travel came to Warwick in the mid 19th century with stations at Milverton in 1844 and off Coventry Road in 1852. See transport section below.
In 1931 21% of occupations were in manufacturing, 16% in personal service, 13% in trade and 11% in local government. Compared to a national average of 14.2%, the average rate of unemployment in Warwick between 1934 and 1938 was just 7.4%. Prior to the outbreak of war in 1939 there were 1000 people living in Warwick who commuted each day to Coventry. In November 1945 there were only 58 unemployed people - all male. By 1949 there were 32 factories employing 2,700 people (1000 of whom were female). There was one shop for every 45 people, compared to the national average of 75.
A study entitled "Warwick; Its preservation and redevelopment" was published by Patrick Abercrombie and Richard Nickson in 1949, which set out a three phase redevelopment scheme for the town. Whilst an emphesis was placed on preservation of Georgian and earlier properties, Victorian buildings were generally seen as unfit for modern purpose. The majority of terraced residential houses on roads including Guy Street, Cherry Street, Albert Street, Victoria Street, Pickard Street, Avon Street, Friars Street and Stand Street were scheduled for demolition in a two phase clearance operation. In the centre of town more than a quarter of buildings were marked for clearance and more than half of the remainder for reconditioning. More recent buildings were excluded, such as the 1930s development of Landor Road. The second phase included construction of a large ring road around the north of the town, running in part through the grounds of Priory Park (which would also have a main road with shops built through it, bypassing Smith Street) and across the Avon via St Nicholas Park. A six point roundabout demolishing Guy Street and a road across the Avon connecting Emscote Road and Myton Road were also included. With a population at the time of 14,200, the plan allowed for an increase of 3000 people. In 2001 the population was recorded at 25,434.
The Warwick Society was founded in 1950 with it's purpose "To preserve the heritage and improve the town environment of Warwick by encouraging high standards of design, architecture and planning.". One of its primary tasks was to oppose the inner ring road. Today it boasts almost 400 members and actively reviews/attempts to block planning applications that don't meet its criteria.
The 60s and 70s saw development North of the Grand Union Canal, with two residential estates (Woodloes Park and Percy) being constructured either side of Coventry Road. Each are larger than the town centre.
The following graph shows Thomas Kemp's estimation of the total number of houses in St Marys and St Nicholas parishes between 1086 and 1730:
The Grand Union Canal that flows through Warwick was originally (prior to 1895) two separate canals: The Warwick and Birmingham Canal (opened in the 1790s) and The Warwick and Napton Canal (opened 1800). Their construction greatly improved communication and lowered the price of raw materials previously transported by horse, such as coal. This in turn led to a significant increase in industry within the town.
Several of the factories that were built backed directly onto the canal with their own wharves, such as the Warwick Gas Works and the large gelatine factory at Emscote Mills.
The introduction of railways and later road transport led to a large decrease in canal use. By the 1970s the Saltisford arm (formally the terminus of the Warwick and Birmingham Canal) had become derelict. It was restored in the 80s however much of the basin (shown as coal wharfes on the 1851 map) has now been redeveloped.
Warwick's first train station was opened in December 1844 by the London and Birmingham Railway company. In an attempt to attract passengers from both towns its location at Milverton did not however prove popular. After eight name changes (involving different combinations of the words Milverton, Warwick and Leamington) the station was closed in 1965 as part of the Beeching cuts. The line on which it lay (a Leamington to Coventry branch line) is still in operation today.
The second station to be built was much closer to the town centre, just off Coventry Road near Coten End. It was opened in 1852 by the Great Western Railway on the Oxford to Birmingham route, now part of the Birmingham Snow Hill to London Marylebone line, operated by Chiltern Railways. Despite express trains only stopping for 1st class passengers at the station; all coach services in Warwick were forced out of business between 1850 and 1874 and the number of carriers dropped during this period from 62 to 36. There was formally a large goods area to the East of the station just North of Broad Street (now a builder's yard) that closed sometime after the 2nd World War.
The third station, Warwick Parkway, was opened in 2000. Located on the other side of the A46 trunkroad with a much larger carpark, more trains and good access from the M40 it is well used by commuters.
A tramway formally ran from outside the Lord Leycester Hospital on High Street, through Jury Street, Smith Street, St Johns, Coten End, Emscote Road and on to the train station in Leamington. The idea was first talked about in 1872 but it wasn't until November 1878 that a Provisional Order was submitted to the Board of Trade to construct a horse driven single 4ft 8.5inch gauge tramway. Having been granted approval by Warwick, Leamington and Milverton councils the original promoters of the tramway (led by James Richardson) pulled out. In their place the Leamington & Warwick Tramways & Omnibus Co Ltd was registered on the 18th February 1880, who on the 14th May 1881, awarded a contract to John Fell of Leamington to construct the line. Work was completed on November 17th at a cost of £14,800.
The tramway was first opened for passengers and parcels on the 21st November 1881 with 2 cars. It was a single track line running down the centre of each road, with 2 tracks on Smith Street, passing loops and a siding that led into the stables at Coten End (opened in the first week of 1882). When trams were fully loaded extra 'puller' horses had to be used at steep sections of track, such as by East Gate. Originally 16 horses were leased, however in May of the following year 45 horses were purchased at a cost of £1406. The operation was profitable in the years 1883 to 1901, with dividends paid to shareholders between 2.5% and 6%. The total journey time from Warwick to Leamington was 50 minutes.
Electric trams were introduced on the 12th July, 1905 and were used until 16th August 1930. It is possible that some of the lines still exist underneath today's roads.
Many of the following books are available at the Warwick Library in Barrack Street.
Abbreviations: "WCRO" is the Warwickshire County Record Office on Cape Road and "Library" is Warwick Library in Barrack Street.
Since May 2009 there have been 205 roads and 288 buildings added for Warwick.
1: Warwickshire County Council Website. Towns of Warwickshire - Warwick. Accessed 27/09/09. Link: http://www.warwickshire.gov.uk/web/corporate/pages.nsf/Links/B4315E78A941E3318025703500334CBD
2: The Great Fire of Warwick 1694. Edited by Michael Farr. 1992. Printed for the Dugdale Society.
3: Warwick Society Twenty-Third Annual Report 1973. Page 6. Held at Warwick County Records Office.
4: An Historical and Descriptive Account of The Town and Castle of Warwick. William Field. 1815. Page 52.
5: A History of Warwick and its People by Thomas Kemp. Published 1905 by Henry T. Cooke & Son. Page 209
6: Page 204 of A History of Warwick and its People by Thomas Kemp. Published 1905 by Henry T. Cooke & Son
7: Survey in 1851 by the Ordnance Survey Department in accordance with the previsions of the Public Health Act. Scale: Ten feet to one statute mile. Available at Warwick County Records Office.
8: 1788 Estate Map of Warwick. Held at WCRO
9: Survey in 1851 by the Ordnance Survey Department in accordance with the previsions of the Public Health Act. Scale: Ten feet to one statute mile. Available at Warwick County Records Office.
10: A History of Warwick and its People by Thomas Kemp. Published 1905 by Henry T. Cooke & Son. Page 206
11: An Historical and Descriptive Account of The Town and Castle of Warwick. William Field. 1815. Page 57.
12: The plan for the estate was approved by the town council in 1954. Recorded in the Warwick Society Annual Report 1954.
13: Warwick Society Twenty-Third Annual Report 1973. Page 6. Held at Warwick County Records Office.
14: Warwickshire County Council Website: Warwick Bus Station
15: An Historical and Descriptive Account of The Town and Castle of Warwick. William Field. 1815. Page 4.
16: An Historical and Descriptive Account of The Town and Castle of Warwick. William Field. 1815. Page 1.
17: A History of Warwick and it's People. Thomas Kemp. 1905
18: A History of Warwick and it's People. Thomas Kemp. 1905
19: A History of Warwick and it's People. Thomas Kemp. 1905
20: An Historical and Descriptive Account of The Town and Castle of Warwick. William Field. 1815. Page 3.
21: A History of Warwick and it's People. Thomas Kemp. 1905
22: Domesday book, for the county of Warwick, tr. by W. Reader. 1835. Available in full at Google Books
23: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. A plan for the Borough of Warwick prepared for the Borough Council by Patrick Abercrombie and Richard Nickson. Published by The Architectural Press, London. 1949. Page 17
24: The Black book of Warwick. Editted by Thomas Kemp. 1898. Published by H.T. Cooke and son. Available at Warwick Library
25: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. A plan for the Borough of Warwick prepared for the Borough Council by Patrick Abercrombie and Richard Nickson. Published by The Architectural Press, London. 1949. Page 18
26: The Past in Warwick: Tudors to Victorians. Edited by Nat Alcock. Published by The University of Warwick. 1985. Pages 7-10
27: The Past in Warwick: Tudors to Victorians. Edited by Nat Alcock. Published by The University of Warwick. 1985. Pages 11-12
28: The Past in Warwick: Tudors to Victorians. Edited by Nat Alcock. Published by The University of Warwick. 1985. Pages 17-23
29: An historical and descriptive account of the town & castle of Warwick By William Field. 1815. Pages 10 and 11.
30: 'The borough of Warwick: Introduction: the suburbs from c. 1600', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 8: The City of Coventry and Borough of Warwick (1969), pp. 434-447. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=16049 Date accessed: 07 July 2009.
31: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. A plan for the Borough of Warwick prepared for the Borough Council by Patrick Abercrombie and Richard Nickson. Published by The Architectural Press, London. 1949. Pages 19-20
32: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. By Richard Nickson and Patrick Abercrombie. Published 1949. Copy held at Warwick Library. Pages 25 and 26.
33: A History of Warwick and its People by Thomas Kemp. Published 1905 by Henry T. Cooke & Son. Page 75
34: An Historical and Descriptive Account of The Town and Castle of Warwick. William Field. 1815. Page 52.
35: A History of Warwick and its People by Thomas Kemp. Published 1905 by Henry T. Cooke & Son. Page 82
36: Pigot and Co's National Commercial Directory. 1835. Pages 619 to 620. Held at Warwick County Records Office
37: Pigot and Co's National Commercial Directory. 1835. Page 620. Held at Warwick County Records Office
38: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. By Richard Nickson and Patrick Abercrombie. Published 1949. Copy held at Warwick Library. Pages 35 to 38.
39: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. By Richard Nickson and Patrick Abercrombie. Published 1949. Copy held at Warwick Library. Map on page 50.
40: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. By Richard Nickson and Patrick Abercrombie. Published 1949. Copy held at Warwick Library. Inset from page 132.
41: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. By Richard Nickson and Patrick Abercrombie. Published 1949. Copy held at Warwick Library. Page 70.
42: Neighbourhood Statistics: http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/
43: Warwick Society Website. About. Accessed 27/09/09. Link: http://warwicksociety.wordpress.com/about/
44: Warwick: Its preservation and redevelopment. By Richard Nickson and Patrick Abercrombie. Published 1949. Copy held at Warwick Library. Page 28.
45: Leamington and Warwick Tramways. Plans and Sections. Session 1882. Available at Warwick County Records Office.
46: The Leamington & Warwick Tramways. Issue 112 of Locomotion papers. S. L. Swingle, Keith Turner. Oakwood Press. 1978
47: Leamington and Warwick Tramways. Plans and Sections. Session 1882. Available at Warwick County Records Office.
48: The Leamington & Warwick Tramways. Issue 112 of Locomotion papers. S. L. Swingle, Keith Turner. Oakwood Press. 1978
49: Warwick in Times Past. P.J.E. Gates. Page 28.
50: When Warwick Ran by Tram. The Warwick Courier. 28 August 2008. http://www.warwickcourier.co.uk/features/When-Warwick-ran-by-tram.4436347.jp
Categories: Market Towns in Warwickshire
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